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참고문헌 인용법(Referencing & Citation): Vancouver Style

Vancouver Style?

1978년 캐나다 밴쿠버에서 의학학술지 편집인들이 비공식 모임을 갖고 학술지 투고 형식과 지침을 만든 것에서 기원한다. 이들 밴쿠버 그룹은 국제의학학술지편집인위원회(ICMJE: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors)로 발전하여 원고 투고 양식을 계속적으로 개정하고 있다.

생의학분야에서 주로 사용하고 있는 학술지 스타일이다.

For example:

(In text)

Brown determined that "oral story reading constituted a considerable source of vocabulary acquisition, whether or not the reading was accompanied by teacher explanation of word meanings"1.  Reading aloud is considered a highly useful extensive reading activity2, and should be considered as part of any guided reading activity.

(reference list)

1.    Brown R, Waring R, Donkaewbua S. Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories. Reading in a Foreign Language. 2008;20(2):136-63.
2.    Bamford J, Day RR, editors. Extensive reading activities for teaching language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2004.

Numbers used for in text citation may be in brackets (1), or may be superscript1, but must be consistant throughout.


Basic Pattern

  • Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. City of Publication: Publisher; Year. p. quoted pages.

Standard references to whole books

  • 1. Jenkins PF. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. p. 16.
  • 2. Eyre HJ, Lange DP, Morris LB. Informed decisions: the complete book of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; c2002.

If you need to clarify the place of publication:

  • Minkler M. Community organizing and community building for health. 2nd ed. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University Press; c2005.

Book with an edition

  • 3. Modlin IM, Sachs G. Acid related diseases: biology and treatment. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2004. p. 38.
  • 4. Brown AF. Accident and emergency: diagnosis and management. 4th ed. New York: Arnold; 2002.

Book with editors or translators when there is no author

  • 5. Izzo JL Jr, Black HR, editors. Hypertension primer: the essentials of high blood pressure. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2003.
  • 6. Celli L, editor. The elbow: traumatic lesions. Warr A, translator. Vienna (Austria): Springer-Verlag; c1991. p. 106.
  • 7. Flaws B, translator. The classic of difficulties: a translation of the Nan Jing. 3rd ed. Boulder (CO): Blue Poppy Press; 2004..

Book with author(s) and editor(s)/translator(s)/illustrator(s)

  • 8. Martin EW. Hazards of medication. 2nd ed. Ruskin A, Napke E, Alexander S, Kelsey FO, Farage DJ, Mills DH, Elkas RW, editors. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1978.
  • 9. Stein E. Anorectal and colon diseases: textbook and color atlas of proctology. 1st Engl. ed. Burgdorf WH, translator. Berlin: Springer; c2003.
  • 10. Bosch F, Klomp R. Running: biomechanics and exercise physiology applied in practice. Bosch F, illustrator; Boer-Stallman DW, translator. Edinburgh (Scotland): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; c2005. p. 305.

Book with organization as author/editor

  • 11. Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London: BMJ Books; 2001.
  • 12. Swiss Pharmaceutical Society, editor. Index nominum: international drug directory. 18th ed. Stuttgart (Germany): Medpharm Scientific Publications; 2004.

Book with organization as author which is also the publisher

  • 13. Virginia Law Foundation, Committee on Continuing Legal Education. The medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville (VA): The Foundation; 1987.

     as an option, the full publisher name may be given

Book title in a language other than English

  • 14. Katsunori K. [Euthanasia and criminal law]. Shohan. Tokyo: Seibundo; 2003. 198. Japanese.
  • 15. Han'guk yagop 100-yon. Seoul (Korea): Yakop Sinmun; 2004. 2 vol. Korean.
  • 16. Ochoa S. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas; 2000. Spanish.

Book with place of publication inferred, or unknown place of publication

  • 17. Marquis DK. Advance care planning: a practical guide for physicians. [Chicago]: AMA Press; c2001.
  • 18. Kuttner L. A child in pain: how to help, what to do. [place unknown]: Hartley & Marks; 1996. p. 206


Basic Pattern

  • Author AA, Author BB. Title of web page [Internet]. Place of Publication: Sponsor of Website/Publisher; YYYY Month DD [updated YYYY Abb. Month DD; cited YYYY Abb. Month DD]. Available from: http://URL

Standard citation to a book on the Internet

  • Richardson ML. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging [Internet]. Version 2.0. Seattle (WA): University of Washington School of Medicine; c2000 [revised 2001 Oct 1; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from:
  • Fact sheet: AIDS information resources [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2003 May 2 [updated 2005 Jul 14; cited 2006 Nov 15]. [about 3 screens]. Available from:

Book on the Internet with an organization(s) as author

  • Federal Communicators Network (US). Communicators guide for federal, state, regional, and local communicators [Internet]. [Washington]: Department of Agriculture (US); 2000 Dec [revised 2001 Dec; cited 2006 Nov 1]. [about 75 p.]. Available from:

Book on the Internet with editors where there is no author

  • Beers MH, Jones TV, Berkwits M, Kaplan JL, Porter R, editors. The Merck manual of health & aging [Internet]. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories; c2005 [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from:

Book on the Internet with no authors or editors

  • Making a difference: state injury and violence prevention programs [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): State and Territorial Injury Prevention Directors Association; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 120 p. Available from:

Book on the Internet with an edition or version

  • Wilkinson R, Marmot M, editors. Social determinants of health: the solid facts [Internet]. 2nd ed. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe; c2003 [cited 2006 Nov 3]. Available from:

Book on the Internet with date estimated

  • Evaluation of health literacy work among libraries and community organizations in the New York City area: report highlights [Internet]. New York: Americans for Libraries Council; [2002?] [cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from:

Book on the Internet with DOI included

  • Schiraldi GR. Post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Internet]. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000 [cited 2006 Nov 6]. Available from: DOI: 10.1036/0737302658

Standard citation to a part of a book on the Internet with traditional page numbers for location (book chapter)

  • Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions [Internet]. Version 4.2.6. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2006 [updated 2006 Sep]. Chapter 3, Guide to the contents of a protocol and review; [cited 2006 Nov 17]; p. 37-57. Available from:

Chapter in a book

Standard chapter in a book

  • Riffenburgh RH. Statistics in medicine. 2nd ed. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Academic Press; c2006. Chapter 24, Regression and correlation methods; p. 447-86.
  • Reed JG, Baxter PM. Library use: handbook for psychology. 3rd ed. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2003. Chapter 2, Selecting and defining the topic; p. 11-25.

Standard reference to a chapter contributed to an edited book

  • Whiteside TL, Heberman RB. Effectors of immunity and rationale for immunotherapy. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC Jr, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E 3rd, editors. Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker Inc; 2003. p. 221-8.
  • Rojko JL, Hardy WD Jr. Feline leukemia virus and other retroviruses. In: Sherding RG, editor. The cat: diseases and clinical management. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1989. p. 229-332.

Other named parts in a book with numbers

  • Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC. Textbook of veterinary medicine: diseases of the dog and cat. 6th ed. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Saunders; c2005. Section 7, Dietary considerations of systemic problems; p. 553-98.
  • Berman A, Snyder S, Kozier B, Erb G. Kozier and Erb's techniques in clinical nursing. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall; c2002. Unit 3, Mobility and safety; p. 173-257.

Other named parts in a book with letters

  • Katz DL. Nutrition in clinical practice: a comprehensive, evidence-based manual for the practitioner. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2001. Part B, Dietary management in clinical practice: diet and exercise; p. 35-194.

Dictionary or Encyclopaedia entry, unsigned

  • Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 30th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; c2003. Encephalomalacia; p. 609.
  • Turkington C, Tzeel A. The encyclopedia of children's health and wellness. New York: Facts on File, Inc.; c2004. Papilloma virus, human (HPV); p. 381-3.

Signed encyclopedia article

  • Robinson A, Fridovich-Keil JL, Fridovich I. The principles of genetics and heredity. In: The new encyclopaedia Brittanica. 15th ed. Vol. 19. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Inc.; c2002. p. 699-740.
  • Hazeltine WA. AIDS. In: The encyclopedia Americana. International ed. Vol. 1. Danbury (CT): Grolier Incorporated; 1990. p. 365-6.

Journal Article

Standard journal article

  • Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1):112-6.
  • Jun BC, Song SW, Park CS, Lee DH, Cho KJ, Cho JH. The analysis of maxillary sinus aeration according to aging process: volume assessment by 3-dimensional reconstruction by high-resolutional CT scanning. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Mar;132(3):429-34.
  • Clark P, Lavielle P, Duarte C. Patient ratings of care at a rheumatology out-patient unit. Arch Med Res. 2004 Jan-Feb;35(1):82-6.

   Note, the abbreviation of the journal title is used.  If the journal title consists of a single word, use whole word e.g.:

  • Bryant BJ, Alperin JB, Indrikovs AJ. Blood bank on-call physician's experiences at a large university medical center. Transfusion. 2005 Jan;45(1):35-40.

Journal article with many authors

   Some journals require all authors to be included in the reference, others require three or six authors followed by "et al." or "and others".  Check with lecturer for preference.

   to 3 authors

  • Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, et al. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.
  • or Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, and others. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.

   to 6 authors

  • Hallal AH, Amortegui JD, Jeroukhimov IM, Casillas J, Schulman CI, Manning RJ, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005 Jun;200(6):869-75.

Journal article with DOI provided

  • Bhutta ZA, Darmstadt GL, Hasan BS, Haws RA. Community-based interventions for improving perinatal and neonatal health outcomes in developing countries: a review of the evidence. Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2 Suppl):519-617. DOI:10.1542/peds.2004-1441.

Journal article with organization as author

  • American Diabetes Association. Diabetes update. Nursing. 2003 Nov;Suppl:19-20, 24.
  • Parkinson Study Group. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of rasagiline in levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson disease and motor fluctuations: the PRESTO study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Feb;62(2):241-8.
  • Council of Europe, Steering Committee on Bioethics. Draft additional protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, on biomedical research. J Int Bioethique. 2004 Mar;15(1):107-22.

Journal article with governmental body as author

  • National Institutes of Health (US). End-of-life care. National Institutes of Health statement on the state of the science. AWHONN Lifelines. 2005 Feb-Mar;9(1):15-22.
  • United States District Court, S.D. Florida, Miami Division. Greenberg v. Miami Children's Hospital Research Institute. Wests Fed Suppl. 2003;264:1064-78.

Journal article with no author provided

  • Pelvic floor exercise can reduce stress incontinence. Health News. 2005 Apr;11(4):11.
  • Drug-resistance tuberculosis among the foreign-born in Canada. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2005 Feb 15;31(4):46-52. English, French.

Journal article in a language other than English

   in a roman alphabet

  • Berrino F, Gatta G, Crosignani P. [Case-control evaluation of screening efficacy]. Epidemiol Prev. 2004 Nov-Dec;28(6):354-9. Italian.
  • Bechade D, Desrame J, Raynaud JJ, Algayres JP. [Oesophageal ulcer associated with the use of bacampicillin]. Presse Med. 2005 Feb 26;34(4):299-300. French.

   in a non-roman alphabet

  • Zhao L, Li H, Han D. [Effects of intestinal endotoxemia on the development of cirrhosis in rats]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2001 Jul;9 Suppl:21-3. Chinese.
  • Paroussis D, Papaoutsopoulou C. [Porcelain laminate veneers (HI-ERAM)]. Odontostomatol Proodos. 1990 Dec;44(6):423-6. Greek.

Journal article volume with supplement

  • El Shehaby A, Ganz JC, Reda WA, Hafez A. Temporary symptomatic swelling of meningiomas following gamma knife surgery. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:293-6.
  • Lee A, Chan EC, Ho M, Wong WS, Ng PP. The importance of needs assessment in planning health promoting schools initiatives: comparison of youth risk behaviours of two districts in Hong Kong. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2004;16 Suppl:S7-11.
  • Shortliffe LM, McCue JD. Urinary tract infection at the age extremes: pediatrics and geriatrics. Am J Med. 2002 Jul 8;113 Suppl 1A:55S-66S.

Journal article with volume without issue

  • Prokai-Tatrai K, Prokai L. Modifying peptide properties by prodrug design for enhanced transport into the CNS. Prog Drug Res. 2003;61:155-88.

Journal article with an issue without a volume

  • Shul'gina GI, Ziablitseva EA. [Effect of the GABA derivative phenibut on learning]. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2005;(2):35-40. Russian.
  • Abidov AM, Saiitkulov AM. [Treatment of disorders in interferon status of patients with urogenital chlamydial infection]. Lik Sprava. 2003 Apr-Jun;(3-4):81-4. Russian.

Journal article with no volume or issue

  • AACN national study reports important critical pathways findings. AACN News. 1995 Jul:5.
  • Schwartz-Cassell T. Feeding assistants: based on logic or way off base? Contemp Longterm Care. 2005 Jan:26-8.

Electronic Journal

Standard journal article on the Internet

  • Polgreen PM, Diekema DJ, Vandeberg J, Wiblin RT, Chen YY, David S, Rasmus D, Gerdts N, Ross A, Katz L, Herwaldt LA. Risk factors for groin wound infection after femoral artery catheterization: a case-control study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol [Internet]. 2006 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 5];27(1):34-7. Available from:
  • Poole KE, Compston JE. Osteoporosis and its management. BMJ [Internet]. 2006 Dec 16 [cited 2007 Jan 4];333(7581):1251-6. Available from:

   Note that the whole URL is used - but it must be a permanent link, do not use session URLS.

Journal article on the Internet with organization(s) as author

  • National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa. Use of generic alendronate in the treatment of osteoporosis. S Afr Med J [Internet]. 2006 Aug [cited 2007 Jan 9];96(8):696-7. Available from:
  • American Medical Association; American Nurses Association--American Nurses Foundation; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); Food and Drug Administration (US), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition; Department of Agriculture (US), Food Safety and Inspection Service. Diagnosis and management of foodborne illnesses: a primer for physicians and other health care professionals. MMWR Recomm Rep [Internet]. 2004 Apr 16 [cited 2007 Jan 9];53(RR-4):1-33. Available from:

Journal article on the Internet with no author

  • Prevention strategies for asthma--secondary prevention. CMAJ [Internet]. 2005 Sep 13 [cited 2007 Jan 5];173(6 Suppl):S25-7. Available from:

Journal article on the Internet with standard volume and issue

  • Garg RK, Tandon S. Smoking habits of adolescents and the role of dentists. J Contemp Dent Pract [Internet]. 2006 May 1 [cited 2007 Jan 9];7(2):120-9. Available from:

Journal article on the Internet with month(s)/day(s) included in date of publication

  • Oseni S, Misztal I, Tsuruta S, Rekaya R. Genetic components of days open under heat stress. J Dairy Sci [Internet]. 2004 Sep [cited 2007 Jan 9];87(9):3022-8. Available from:
  • Finall AI, McIntosh SA, Thompson WD. Subcutaneous inflammation mimicking metastatic malignancy induced by injection of mistletoe extract. BMJ [Internet]. 2006 Dec 23 [cited 2007 Jan 9];333(7582):1293-4. Available from:

Journal article on the Internet with season(s) included in date of publication

  • Withers R, Casson R, Shrimplin A. Narrowcasting to faculty and students: creating an efficient "research by subject" page. Electron J Acad Spec Librariansh [Internet]. 2005 Winter [cited 2005 Dec 28];6(3):[about 11 p.]. Available from:
  • Ipp M, Cohen E, Goldbach M, Macarthur C. Pain response to M-M-R vaccination in 4-6 year old children. Can J Clin Pharmacol [Internet]. 2006 Fall [cited 2007 Jan 9];13(3):e296-9. Available from:

Journal article on the Internet with location/extent expressed as estimated number of screens

  • Wilcox LS. Health education from 1775 to 2005. Prev Chronic Dis [Internet]. 2005 Nov [cited 2007 Jan 5];2 Spec No:[about 5 screens]. Available from:
  • Bagheri A, Ferdosi A, Bottros A, Hunter D. Unilateral superior rectus aplasia without craniofacial anomaly. Digit J Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2007 Jan 5];11(5):[about 4 screens]. Available from:

Journal article on the Internet with location/extent expressed as paragraphs

  • Steinberg K. Wellness in every stage of life: a new paradigm for public health programs. Prev Chronic Dis [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 10];4(1):[12 paragraphs]. Available from:
  • Maher-Brisen P. Letter to the editor on "Nurse Safety: Have We Addressed the Risks?" Online J Issues Nurs [Internet]. 2006 Mar 27 [cited 2007 Jan 10];11(2):Letter 1 [4 paragraphs]. Available from:

Journal article on the Internet with DOI provided

  • Harrison JJ, Ceri H, Yerly J, Stremick CA, Hu Y, Martinuzzi R, Turner RJ. The use of microscopy and three-dimensional visualization to evaluate the structure of microbial biofilms cultivated in the Calgary Biofilm Device. Biol Proc Online [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2007 Jan 8];8(1):194-215. Available from: DOI: 10.1251/bpo127
  • Puri S, O'Brian MR. The hmuQ and hmuD genes from Bradyrhizobium japonicum encode heme-degrading enzymes. J Bacteriol [Internet]. 2006 Sep [cited 2007 Jan 8];188(18):6476-82. Available from: DOI: 10.1128/JB.00737-06

Thesis & Dissertations

Standard dissertation

  • Jones DL. The role of physical activity on the need for revision total knee arthroplasty in individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee [dissertation]. [Pittsburgh (PA)]: University of Pittsburgh; 2001. 436 p.
  • Liu-Ambrose TY. Studies of fall risk and bone morphology in older women with low bone mass [dissertation]. [Vancouver (BC)]: University of British Columbia; 2004. 290 p.

Standard master's thesis

  • Roguskie JM. The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 pilin glycan in virulence [master's thesis]. [Pittsburgh (PA)]: Duquesne University; 2005. 111 p.
  • Weisbaum LD. Human sexuality of children and adolescents: a comprehensive training guide for social work professionals [master's thesis]. Long Beach (CA): California State University, Long Beach; 2005. 101 p.

Dissertation or thesis with titles containing a chemical formula, Greek letter, or other special characters

  • Martin EJ. 1,1-dichloroethylene-induced mitochondrial aberrations precede apoptotic and necrotic cell death in murine liver and lung [dissertation]. Kingston (ON): Queen's University; 2004. 149 p.

Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available

  • Goel R. Characterization of α-thrombin-induced rapid phase of PI 3-kinase [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Saint Louis University; 2004. 141 p.

        or  Goel R. Characterization of alpha-thrombin-induced rapid phase of PI 3-kinase [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Saint Louis University; 2004. 141 p.

Dissertation or thesis in a microform

  • Craft LL. Exercise and clinical depression: examining psychological mechanisms [dissertation on microfiche]. [East Lansing (MI)]: Michigan State University; 2002. 116 p. 2 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in.
  • Peppas D. Der Anatom Eduard Jacobshagen (1886-1967) [The anatomist Eduard Jacobshagen (1886-1967)] [dissertation on microfiche]. [Marburg (Germany)]: Marburg University; 2001. 133 p. 2 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in. German.

Dissertation or thesis with place of publication not found on title page

  • Campbell E. Childbearing and choice: views of young Chinese professional women [dissertation]. [Claremont (CA)]: Claremont Graduate University; 1996. 147 p.

Dissertation or thesis submitted in more than one volume

  • Hanson CA. Embodying erudition: English art, medicine, & antiquarianism in the age of empiricism [dissertation]. [Chicago]: University of Chicago, Department of Art History; 2003. 2 vol.

Dissertation or thesis with note on specific type of degree

  • Ari AB. Eye injuries on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan: public health implications [master's thesis]. Anchorage (AK): University of Alaska; 2005. 48 p. Master of Public Health.
  • Verhovsek EL. Examining stages in curriculum change: implementation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) [dissertation]. [Morgantown (WV)]: West Virginia University; 2003. 197 p. Doctor of Education.

Dissertation or thesis accompanied by a CD-ROM, DVD, or other medium

  • Lukasik-Sedmak DM. How to develop an interactive MRI brain cross-sectional anatomy CD-ROM and Web-based educational materials to meet the needs of medical imaging specialists working in magnetic resonance imaging [dissertation]. [Milwaukee (WI)]: Cardinal Stritch University; 2002. 113 p. Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.
  • Morgan JC. VISIO/KINESIS: a mixed media installation and performance [master's thesis]. Dominguez Hills (CA): California State University, Dominguez Hills; 2001. 47 p. Accompanied by: 1 videocassette.

Chapter in a dissertation or thesis

  • Lemov RM. The laboratory imagination: experiments in human and social engineering [dissertation]. [Berkeley (CA)]: University of California, Berkeley; 2000 Spring. Chapter 2, Running the maze: animal and human experiments; p. 67-130.
  • Christensen PM. Infant nutrition and child health on Tarawa, Kiribati: a nutritional anthropological approach [master's thesis]. Sydney (Australia): University of New South Wales, Centre for South Pacific Studies; 1995. Chapter 3.1, Breastfeeding practices on Tarawa; p. 46-53.
  • Hayenga ES. Dieting through the decades: a comparative study of weight reduction in America as depicted in popular literature and books from 1940 to the late 1980's [dissertation]. [Minneapolis (MN)]: University of Minnesota; 1988. Chapter 3C, Science and health; p. 257-70.

Table in a dissertation or thesis

  • Cornwell D. A cost benefit of telemedicine: an assessment of aero-medical evacuation patients throughout the Pacific Basin [master's thesis]. [Waco (TX)]: Baylor University, US Army-Baylor University Graduate Program; 1995. Table 4, Total air-evacs vs total potential telemedicine patients; p. 45.
  • Munoz JA. What is the quality of care in a developing country? Measuring physician practice and health outcomes [dissertation]. Santa Monica (CA): Rand Graduate School; 2002. Table 4.8, Mean objective measures of health for healthcare facility users; p. 4-33.

Figure in a dissertation or thesis

  • Bicks C. Lurking in the gossip's bowl: genealogy, gynecology, and the politics of midwifery in Shakespeare's England [dissertation]. [Stanford (CA)]: Stanford University, Department of English; 1997 Jun. Figure 9, Syringe for emergency in utero baptism; p.194.
  • Roberts PR. Snakes and ladders: the pursuit of a safety culture in New Zealand public hospitals [master's thesis]. [Wellington (New Zealand)]: Victoria University of Wellington, Institute of Policy Studies and Health Services Research Centre; 2002. Figure 2.1, Schema showing relationship of paradigms to human performance and links to and through culture; p. 13.

Appendix in a dissertation or thesis

  • Grant MM. Under the microscope: "race," gender, and medical laboratory science in Canada [dissertation]. [Toronto (ON)]: University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education; 2004. Appendix, Survey on the career patterns and professional experiences of Canadian medical laboratory technologists; p. 285-92.
  • Kneale C. Health claims: an exploration of the current debate in Australia [master's thesis]. Sydney (Australia): University of Sydney, Nutrition Research Foundation; 1996 Oct. Appendix 4, Health claims questionnaire; p. 49.

WEB Contents

Standard citation to a homepage

  • Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from:
  • AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from:
  • [Internet]. Leawood (KS): American Academy of Family Physicians; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:

   If you do not know the date of publication, use the date of copyright, e.g.:

  • enc: egg nutrition center [Internet]. Washington: The Center; c2004 [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from:

Homepage with author(s)

  • Hooper JF. Psychiatry & the Law: Forensic Psychiatric Resource Page [Internet]. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology; 1999 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Jul 8; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from:
  • D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:

Homepage with an organization(s) as author

  • Gene Ontology Consortium. the Gene Ontology [Internet]. [place unknown]: the Gene Ontology; c1999-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from:
  • International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Recommendations on Biochemical & Organic Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology etc. [Internet]. London: University of London, Queen Mary, Department of Chemistry; [updated 2006 Jul 24; cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from:

Homepage with no authors or editors

  • the web's most trusted source on mesothelioma [Internet]. New York: Early, Ludwick, Sweeney & Strauss; c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from:
  • [Internet]. Washington: ASTHO; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from:

Homepage with title having a subtitle

  • NursingWorld: Official Web site of the American Nurses Association [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): American Nurses Association, Inc.; c2007 [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:
  • improving care for the dying [Internet]. San Francisco: Growth House, Inc.; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:

   Note that the case of the title follows whatever is given on the page - if the title begins in lowercase on the web site, it should be listed the same way.

Homepage in a language other than English

  • Societe Francaise de Mycologie Medicale [Internet]. Paris: The Society; [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: French.
  • Senovida [Internet]. [place unknown]: Sociedad Ecuatoriana de Oncologia; [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: Spanish.

Homepage with place of publication inferred

   Use this when you can infer the place of publication from the context of the page, but it is not stated on the page

  • National Library for Health [Internet]. [London]: NHS; c2005 [cited 2007 Jun 11]. Available from:
  • D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:

   Otherwise, cite place of publication as per books:

  • Psychology in the News [Internet]. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:
  • Max-Planck-Institut fur Experimentelle Medizin [Internet]. Gottingen (Germany): Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; c2006 [cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: German.

Homepage with government agency or other national body as publisher

  • National Center for Infectious Diseases [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); [reviewed 2007 Feb 15; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:
  • Healthy People [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from:

Homepage with author and publisher the same

  • Double D. Critical Psychiatry Website [Internet]. Norwich (UK): Duncan Double; [cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from:

Homepage with unknown publisher

  • Huckstep RL, Sherry E. World Ortho [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; [updated 2007 Mar 23; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from:

Homepage with update/revision date

  • United States National Library of Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Library; 1993 Oct 10 [updated 2007 Mar 22; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from:
  • NursingWorld: Official Web site of the American Nurses Association [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): American Nurses Association, Inc.; c2007 [updated 2007 Feb 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:

Homepage with no date of publication or copyright

  • EPERC: End of Life / Palliative Education Resource Center [Internet]. Milwaukee (WI): Medical College of Wisconsin; [updated 2007 Feb; cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from:
  • improving care for the dying [Internet]. San Francisco: Growth House, Inc.; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from:

Other Vancouver Style Guides

You can find other recommended guides for the Vancouver style here: